Well, I have to admit it.
It was tempting to draw large tyrannosaurs with a heavy coat of feathers. It proved VERY tempting. But I stuck to my guns and held out on it. Why? I wasn't convinced the evidence would favor it.

I had already seen pictures of skin impressions attributed to the neck and chest of T. rex, and they were scaly. But this wasn't published and therefore people were casting doubt on it (I wonder if they did the same when Yutyrannus photos showed feathers, before it was formally published and described?). Now some may ask what I have against feathered tyrannosaurids, since that is the new orthodoxy in much of paleo-art (just as lizard-like restorations were orthodoxy in the time of Knight and Burian). The answer is actually: nothing. But when talking about giant tyrannosaurids there was no actual evidence of feathered skin. Not only that, but being roughly 1.5 times the length of the still taxonomically controversial Yutyrannus, the largest T. rexes at 12 meters were over twice the mass, and in addition they were living in a time with warmer global temperatures and increased SO2 and volcanic activity.

I maintained for years that if T. rex had any feathers as an adult, they would probably be in very limited areas, for display. Something that big would not need them for insulation, and as a warm-blooded predator in the Maastrichtian epoch with rising global temperatures, it would likely overheat with a heavy coat of downy insulation feather, and obviously had no use for long-quilled flight feathers.

Now we have a paper just out confirming that big tyrannosaurids were probably scaly over the majority if not all of their body surface - and that feathers were lost relatively early in the evolution of true Tyrannosauridae.
rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.or…
And this isn't some fringe paper in a fake journal by creationists or BANDits. It's Royal Society, and Phil Currie, Bob Bakker, Darren Tanke and Pete Larson are all among the co-authors. You don't get more solid in credentials than that. I don't even think Jack Horner would take issue with their scaly conclusion, given his historically conservative approach to dinosaur biomechanics and metabolism.


Interestingly, not only are the skin impressions scaly, but the scales are tiny. Bead-like, almost. So most likely these are from a softer part of the body, possibly the undersides, but due to decomposition the skin may have become desiccated or detached, and rolled around to the dorsal portions of the body, which are apparently the positions in which the skin impressions were found.


Now I can imagine some people having nightmares over their entire post-dotcom idea of a poofy T. rex being overturned. So what does this really mean for the big picture of tyrannosaurs?

Does it suddenly mean they were cold-blooded overgrown alligators? NO. Warm-bloodedness is not dependent on feathers or fur, especially not at those sizes.
Does it mean that they were unrelated to birds and we need to rip up the theropod family tree? NO. The paper states that the tyrannosaur lineage lost their feathers, not that they never had them.
Does it mean that all the old pre-Bakker images of sluggish tail-dragging T. rexes were correct? NO and no. These certainly weren't the only unfeathered tyrannosaurs ever drawn or painted, and definitely not the most anatomically informed (Burian was even famous for not looking at fossils or estimating proportions). There's no reason to throw out 40 years of gathered evidence of warm-blooded, fast-growing bone texture in tyrannosaurs. Tyrannosaurs were still active, fast, warm-blooded hunters. They just weren't drowning in feathers at 40 feet long.
 
But this doesn't mean that I favor Jurassic Park's ugly monsters either. And simply favoring scaly T. rexes doesn't make you some obsessive JP fanboy. It simply means you listen to the evidence - several scaly impressions in 5 different tyrannosaur genera, and not one feathery impression from any of them. Interestingly, none of these impressions match the big, bulky crocodile-like scales and heavy wrinkles in the Jurassic Park T. rex. Yet I already see and hear some hurt naysayers claiming that everyone who questions the unproven notion of T. rex feathers is somehow a Jurassic Park fan with an agenda who hates feathers. It couldn't be further from the truth.

I was never a big fan of the Jurassic Park franchise, and even now the scale evidence doesn't support their big alligator-like scales or heavy baggy wrinkles on their T. rexes. What's more, the JP 'rexes had obvious errors in their facial appearance, including the lumpy 'gator-like orbital horns and huge triangular jugals, and the "cutout" sections of the lower jaw that they fit into... As if somehow having any overlap of the upper jaw around the lower was a sin to Spielberg, as if they had to close perfectly interlocked like a crocodile. We know that the scale impressions show much smaller and finer scales than anything in the JP franchise. My reasons for questioning the idea of giant 8-ton tyrannosaurs being feathered have nothing to do with a hollywood movie. And everything to do with (a) the evidence, and (b) the simple fact that they were giant 8-ton tyrannosaurs in a rapidly warming Hell Creek climate.

So they did have scales over several parts of the body, and the scales in the hip area indicate it's highly likely the torso was scaly as well. You just don't see scaly hips in any feathered creature, even flightless birds have feathers on the hips and tail (or what's left of it). Of course this doesn't change anything about dinosaurs that we know either had feathers or were likely to have them - like dromaeosaurids ("raptors"), ornithomimids, oviraptorids, caegnathids, etc. A scaly tyrannosaur doesn't negate these animals being feathered, nor does it have any effect on feathered specimens of controversial species sometimes labeled as basal tyrannosauroids, but which may not be (i.e. Yutyrannus).

In fact, the paper's argument is that tyrannosaurids evolved from small feathered ancestors, but likely later lost the feathers as they evolved into giant top-tier predators.



In that case, knowing that the scales were very small, and nothing like the baggly wrinkles and 'gator scutes in Jurassic Park, we can now ask: what is the most accurate T. rex image, based on these scale impressions? It would obviously have to be something post-70s, when Bakker and the Dinosaur Renaissance were gaining steam, and anatomical accuracy really began to matter.

You might say Greg Paul's version. And you'd have a point. Though many of the visible scales here look a good deal larger than the ones in the impressions, not all the scales are visible, and some patches on the underside look like a good place for much finer scales. If the rest of the body was covered in similar, if somewhat larger scales, you would likely have the smooth, tight, and only lightly wrinkled skin you get on Greg Paul dinosaurs.

T. rex pair by Greg Paul. 1988. Based on the AMNH specimen. Used for educational purposes only.

However, Brian Franczak's slightly less "vacsuit" version is another contender:

Brian Franczak's T. rex and Edmontosaurus. 1991. Used for educational purposes only.

There's not much surface detail in Franczak, aside from a few veins and light wrinkles. That's just the style. But overall the anatomy looks solid here and the skin smooth enough that those tiny scales in the impressions would be right at home. The legs are a bit more bulky here, but still not like in JP. The head looks oversized in the far left animal, but that's just a perspective trick for dramatic effect.

Another great rendition of accurate, fine-grained T. rex skin is in Larry Felder's painting of a juvenile 'rex, which was the cover image for the book In the Presence of Dinosaurs. You can almost feel this is a real live animal breathing next to you. The scales struck most people as too tiny, the skin too smooth and "cute" - but after seeing these skin impressions with some scales only a couple of millimeters wide, it's hard not to wonder if Felder had some kind of sixth sense for these things.

Larry Felder's young T. rex from the book cover. Not based on a particular specimen. Educational purposes only.


But if you were to ask me which painting of T. rex looks the most like the actual textures and scale shapes in the skin impressions, I'd have to give it to this long-forgotten gem:

T. rex by Dave Marrs. Apparently based on the Wankel/MOR specimen. Used for educational purposes only.

Now I don't know how many of you are familiar with Dave Marrs' work. He did a large number of paintings for the TV series PaleoWorld in the 90s, which is where I was first introduced to the art of Greg Paul, Brian Franczak, Mark Hallett, David Peters and many others (back then Peters was solidly popular as an artist, and followed the best cutting-edge science of the day, almost like a second Greg Paul - and there wasn't anything too unusual about his paleo-images at that time, even the pterosaurs). Marrs also did some unrelated images for a series of Jurassic Park trading cards, which were largely concept art for the movies.

Apparently Marrs got into legal hot water when he closely copied a number of images from Paul and Peters, robbing both to pay himself and not getting permission to copy copyrighted images. Some of these "re-skinned" copies were also featured in PaleoWorld, most notoriously his Estemmenosuchus, which was a ripoff of Peters' original. But, it must be emphasized, not everything Marrs did was a fraud. He also had many original paintings and no doubt he proved his skill as an artist.

Probably his best painting was the one above of a blue T. rex with relatively thin, basal lips and some VERY detailed scalework. The facial scales are a bit on the large side, but those on the underside of the neck are downright tiny. And this matches the look of the skin impressions almost perfectly. Now given, there are some flaws with the oversized teeth and the jaw proportions, but some of this is due to perspective distortion and stylistically it's a very good painting. And if the skin impressions are any clue, this is easily the most accurate skin in a T. rex painting. Too bad more isn't known about this image, it really does stick with you.

From a distance, some vintage "Dinosaur Renaissance" paintings, like Greg Paul's Daspletosaurus, even did away with extensive scale texturing on the majority of the skin altogether, leaving it to the viewer to imagine what those tiniest of scales looked like up close.

Daspletosaurus by Greg Paul. Based on holotype CMN 8506. Updated version with revised supinated hands. Used for educational purposes only.

Now in the future someone might find skin impressions in other parts of the body of a tyrannosaurid, that indicate the presence of feathers. But so far there are none, and 100% of the few rare skin imprints found of tyrannosaurs thus far, are scaly. The trend to put feathers on tyrannosaurs was always a speculative one, with no actual tyrannosaur evidence to back it up, the closest analogues used being only distantly related and much smaller theropods like Guanlong, Dilong, the maniraptora, and the possibly non-tyrannosauroid Yutyrannus, whose size has often been overestimated. The new paper shows that the five best-known tyrannosaurid genera were scaly over at least several parts of the body, and it's unusual to have feathers limited only to the torso or other regions lacking skin impressions. Even flightless birds today don't have naked hips or tails.

Which brings up an important thought - perhaps the scaly but nevertheless sleek and hot-blooded "Dinosaur Renaissance" T. rexes of the '80s and '90s are not so far off the mark after all. Aside from the pronated hand postures common to that era, they pretty much got it right.







37 comments:

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Migatte said...

I like this post but I was under the impression that Hell Creek was 7-11 degrees Celsius on average, although post Summer Solstice to pre-Autumn Equinox would likely be warmer. Perhaps T. rex shed it's spring coat of feathers on the dorsum and was bare skinned throughout Summer? Although wouldn't that leave it more vulnerable to overexposure to sunlight?

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global group said...

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يمكنك التواصل مع شركة تنظيف بدبي في أي وقت من أجل أن يقوم فريق العمال شركة تنظيف بالشارقة و الخبراء بالحضور إلى المنزل في الميعاد الذي تقوم شركة تنظيف بعجمان بتحديده حيث أن الفريق معروف بمدى التزامه بالمواعيد و الاتقان شركة تنظيف بابو ظبي في العمل فنحن نرغب في توفير الخدمة المثالية التي تمكنا من الحصول شركة تنظيف كنب بدبي على ثقة العميل الكبيرة بنا فنحن نجتهد لكي نستحق تلك الثقة بشكل مستمر

global group said...

يعمل فريق الخبراء على تقديم التصاميم حجر هاشمى هيصم المختلفة الخاصة بالمطابخ أو الحمامات شركة تنظيف بدبي و يمكنك الاختيار فيما بينها و هذا من خلال حجر مايكا تسليك مجاري بالكويت الذي يعمل على توفير الدعم و القوة على الغرف الموجودة في المنزل و تتعامل الشركة رقم صباغ رخيص بالكويت معكم بأقل الاسعار و التكاليف التي فني كهرباء منازل بالكويت لا مثيل لها في أي مكان آخر

التسويق الاكترونى said...

خدمات ركن كلين للخدمات المنزلية ومكافحة الحشرات بالرياض لذلك تحرص شركتنا كأفضل الشركات الموجودة فى الرياض على التخلص من جميع الأفات الشرسه مثلا الفئران وغيرها من القوارض التى من الممكن ان تكون سبب فى تدمير اغراض اى منزل او قد تسبب بعض الامراض اونقلها شركة رش مبيدات بالرياض - شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالرياض - شركة مكافحة الصراصير بالرياض-شركة مكافحة الفئران بالرياض-شركة مكافحة بق الفراش بالرياض-شركة مكافحة الوزغ بالرياض-شركة مكافحة النمل الاسود بالرياض.

Gneral said...

توفر الشركة مجموعة كبيرة من العمال المدربين على التعامل مع كافة أنواع الأثاث والديكور المختلفة والقادرين علي فك وتركيب كافة أنواع الأثاث والديكور المختلفة والحفاظ عليها كما توفر الشركة خدمة تغليف الأثاث المنزلي قبل عملية النقل لضمان جودة الخدمات وحفاظا علي الديكور حيث يتم تقسيم القطع المراد نقلها ويتم تغليفها بصورة جيده حتي لا يتأذى أثناء عملية النقل ولا تؤثر بشكل أو بآخر عليها كما توفر الشركة مجموعة من الرافعات والأوناش والتي تستخدم في عملية رفع الأثاث المنزلي المراد تنزيل قطع منه من الأدوار العليا لأسفل والعكس دون أي خلل ذلك حفاظا علي مستوي سلامة القطع فتدخل العنصر البشري قد ينتج عنه خسارة بعض قطع الأثاث لذا تحرص الشركة علي توفير كافة الأجهزة الحديثة المتطورة اللازمة لذلك
شركة رش مبيدات بالرياض
شركة تسليك مجاري بالرياض
شركة جلي بلاط بالرياض
شركة التقوي للخدمات المنزلية بالرياض

شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالرياض
شركة بيع وشراء اثاث بالرياض
شركة صيانة مكيفات بالرياض
شركة صيانة مسابح بالرياض

Gneral said...

تهتم الشركة بتوفير كافة أنواع الأجهزة والمواد المختلفة والمتطورة التي تستخدم في عملية تنظيف المجاري وشفط البيارات وإزالة جميع العوالق والفضلات التي تتراكم وتسبب الانسداد التام علي المدى البعيد لذلك توفر الشركة مجموعة كبيرة من الأجهزة المتطورة التي تستخدم في سحب كافة أنواع الفضلات والعوالق من الداخل كما توفر سيارات كبيرة خاصة بضخ المياة تقوم بضخ المياة بقوة للتأكد من سلامة الصرف وجريان الماء بالشكل الطبيعي كما توفر الشركة مجموعة كبيرة من المنظفات الخاصة والقوية جدا والفعالة بشكل يجعلها تفتت أصعب الدهون الموجودة داخل البيارات بكل سهولة ويسر كما تنصح الشركة بالاهتمام بشكل مستمر بتسليك وتنظيف البيارات لمنع الانسداد وتجنب مشاكله المختلفة والتي لا حصر لها والتي تكمن بشكل أساسي في أضرار صحية متعددة.
شركة تنظيف منازل بالرياض

شركة نقل عفش بالرياض

شركة تنظيف سجاد بالرياض
تسريب المياة يحدث بشكل مستمر في أي وقت والظاهر منه هو الذي يمكن ملاحظته والتعامل معه بشكل سريع والذي تظهر إثارة بشكل واضح علي الجدران من تنقيط طفيف للماء أو رطوبة منتشرة في المكان بالكامل أو انتشار روائح كريهة بالمكان غير معروف سببها حينها يتم البحث بشكل سريع والتعامل فورا مع ذلك التسريب أما إذا كان لديك تسريب مائي داخلي غير ظاهر المعالم فالخطورة تكون بشكل أكبر حينها يجب التعامل فورا والتنسيق مع شركة كشف تسربات المياه بعنيزة توفر أجهزة حديثة للقضاء علي جميع التسريبات الداخلية والخارجية وتغير كافة الوصلات التالفة لذا توفر الشركة مجموعة كبيرة من الأجهزة الخاصة بالكشف عن كافة أنواع التسريبات سواء كانت ظاهرة أم لا كما أن كافة الخامات والمعدات يمكنها الكشف دون الحاجة الي تكسير الجدران وإتلاف المنظر والديكورات وكل هذا بأسعار مناسبة جدا تتماشي مع جميع الطبقات
شركة مكافحة حشرات بالرياض
شركة تنظيف خزانات بالرياض
شركة مكافحة فئران بالرياض
توفر الشركة مجموعة من أقوي مواد إبادة الحشرات وأحدث الأجهزة الخاصة برش المبيدات المختلفة والمتطورة جدا فهي قادرة علي تغطية شاملة لكافة أماكن الإصابة المختلفة ورشها ومنع انتشار الحشرات المختلفة في المكان وكذلك تقوم الشركة بتوفير مجموعة من المبيدات التي يتم رشها بصورة سريعة والتي يختلف نوع كل منها عن الآخر ويتعامل كل نوع منها مع نوع بعينة من الحشرات فكل نوع له المادة الفعالة الخاصة به والقادرة علي التعامل مع الحشرات بشكل محترف وسريع كما تتميز كافة أنواع المبيدات الحشرية بعنصر الأمان فهو لا يسبب أي مشاكل صحية مهما كان كما يمكن التعامل بها في وجود أفراد المنزل بشكل عادي دون أي مشاكل كما توفر الشركة خدمة المتابعة الدورية حرصا علي سلامة المستخدم والتأكد من سلامة المكان
شركة مكافحة حمام بالرياض
شركة تخزين اثاث بالرياض

محمد على said...


شركة تنظيف بالرياض
شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالرياض
شركة تنظيف واجهات زجاج بالرياض
شركة تسليك مجارى بالرياض

mmdoh said...

مكافحة الفئران الشارقة

ارقام شركة مكافحة حشرات الشارقة

شركة مبيدات حشرية الشارقة

شركة مكافحة حشرات بالشارقة

شركات مكافحة الحشرات المعتمدة من بلدية الشارقة

mmdoh said...

شركة تنظيف بالشارقة

شركة تنظيف منازل في الشارقة

خدمات التنظيف في الشارقة

شركة تنظيف الشارقة

شركات تنظيف الكنب في الشارقة

شركات تنظيف المباني في الشارقة

خدمات تنظيف المنازل الشارقة

شركة تنظيف فلل بالشارقة

شركة تنظيف فلل في الشارقة

شركات تنظيف بالساعه في الشارقة

شركات تنظيف الكنب في الشارقة

خدمات تنظيف بالساعه الشارقة

شركات التنظيف في الشارقة


kayan web said...

شركة تنظيف فلل بالرياض Perfect cleaning and cleaning of the villa's rooms and the use of a vacuum cleaner to remove dust and soil.شركة تنظيف بالرياض The beauty and cleanliness of the place gives the use of steam cleaning machines that remove stains accurately and quickly and are used to clean canes and boards.
شركة تنظيف بالخرج Carpets, carpets and ceramics. If you are unable to execute these tips from شركة تنظيف منازل بالخرج .
شركة مكافحة الحمام بالرياض We provide you with a range of tips that prevent the nesting of the bathroom on the surface of your home you clean the surface and balconies from the remnants of the grain and clean it from waste and used furniture
شركة تنظيف منازل بالمدينة المنورة We have the ability to make your home an oasis of cleanliness and beauty. We have a dedicated team to clean every part of your home, but we are keen to provide important tips to keep your house clean for as long as possible. شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة Use a vacuum cleaner to get rid of accumulated dust on a daily basis. Cleaning the glass home facades provides a perfect look for the home Provide you with a great service in cleaning your house if you can not do this hard work and effort شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة .
شركة تنظيف بينبع Provide you with a distinctive service in all types of private cleaning Carpet carpet cleaning using the steam cleaning machine makes it clean and fully sterile.
شركة نقل اثاث بينبع It is an ideal choice to carry out your home furniture without any effort or hardship. But if you want to do it yourself, arrange the clothing bags for your family so that you can remove the tires and wooden rooms easily. Transportation. Many things you can do .
شركة تنظيف منازل بمكة It is the best choice for you to clean the perfect parts of your home - Carpet cleaning and carpeting the best types of steam cleaning machines or sent to Cleaning and cleaning of beds and boards and putting mattresses on them to prevent the accumulation of dust and stains on them You must use high quality detergents to ensure high quality cleaning of all the items and parts of your home You need a daily cleaning of the kitchen and bathrooms to give a recovery and confidence in the cleanliness of the whole house شركة تنظيف خزانات بمكة Able to clean your home without bothering you or get tired at great cheap prices.
Visit our website
https://www.allsaad.com/

kayan web said...

شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة Is one of the best companies currently located in Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. Since the company started its activities more than twenty years ago, it has endeavored to develop all its services and made sure to provide the best service at the highest level of quality in cleaning and disinfection at the lowest prices possible. The company believes that the company's employment is a mirror that reflects the efficiency of the company that boasts of it. The worker must be confident and credible to provide the customer with everything he can provide. JAL cleaning and sterilization found in شركة تنظيف منازل بالمدينة المنورة .
شركة نقل اثاث بالمدينة المنورة Providing customers with transportation services of furniture and furniture and storage of furniture using the latest methods and methods and modern techniques and trained workers and freight cars specially equipped to transport furniture and clothes to anywhere inside or outside Medina, customers often need a city to transfer furniture to move furniture from their offices or homes Or their companies to new places but are afraid of their loss of damage or loss, but our company guarantees its customers to complete the transfer process safely and safely without being exposed to any piece of fracture or loss as the company provides a service to lift and download furniture using a hydraulic winch The only available within شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة .
شركة تنظيف بينبع The company's services include all kinds of services needed by customers such as house cleaning services, apartments, cleaning services for ground and upper water tanks, cleaning of palaces and cleaning services for hotels, residential complexes, mosques, parks, facilities and others. Types of Services The main governmental and private bodies cooperated with the cleaning company in Yanbu. Our company has provided them with the most complete image that has impressed them and increased their confidence in the skill and efficiency of our company and its employees. P safe and effective when providing various cleaning services such detergents, but inside there is no شركة تنظيف منازل بينبع .
شركة نقل اثاث بينبع Is one of the largest furniture transport companies in the city of Yanbu, which is known for providing services at the highest level and the company always offers offers and discounts and wonderful offers on the cost of services and this is what surprises customers and make them always put them the only choice for them, we have a professional team of carpenters who oversee the distinguished operations Dismantling and installing furniture and repair and maintenance of any fractures, as the company has workers polishing furniture and wooden furniture with effective polishes to remove the dirt from the layers of paint and make the furniture bright shiny like new, after the completion of cleaning the workers of evil Of furniture with materials encapsulates the strength and durability to protect the furniture from the external shocks or natural factors such materials are available only from within شركة نقل عفش بينبع
Visit our website
https://fajr-sate3.com/

kayan web said...

The task of moving a catcher needs to rely on شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة It is specialized and has a long history in this field, helping it to carry out the task of transporting the baggage without causing any problems. Among the precautions taken by the company during transport of the luggage are the following: High-quality packaging materials to ensure that no problems are encountered during transport, the luggage is loaded into the car very carefully so as not to be subject to any problems during transportation. The luggage is re-connected to the place where it is transported and the packaging that is placed on the pallet is removed. During transportation. , All the transferred items are written to make sure that there is no defect in the piece, therefore you will ensure the transfer of the baggage without being exposed to any problems during transportation, شركة نقل اثاث بالمدينة المنورة .
Is characterized by شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة With the experience and efficiency in the task of cleaning, as it uses the best equipment and the latest in addition to many aspects that focus on them to ensure that the cleaning is done to the fullest, and the most important things that you find in the fast service company and nowhere else find the following: It depends on the best detergents that can eliminate stains and smears, follow a certain system in the cleaning task; for this reason it ensures that it reaches the best results, depends on the latest methods such as steam cleaning method which proved its efficiency in the cleaning work, During which to eliminate all germs and The bacteria that are present in the place and maintain the health of the present, possess the best specialized perfumes that you can only find شركة نظافة بالمدينة المنورة.
that شركة تخزين اثاث بالمدينة المنورة It can store any quantity of furniture even if it is huge. This is because the company owns large warehouses divided into many sections. It packs and puts furniture in cars and is transported to the stores equipped with the highest level and has the latest means of monitoring. شركة تخزين عفش بالمدينة المنورة You will get satisfactory results without having to pay a lot of money in return
Be aware شركة تنظيف بينبع Cleaning works require the latest equipment for cleaning and the best detergents. This is what it provides to its customers. Therefore, it ensures the results. The company can clean any place, Will t D have شركة نظافة بينبع Discounts and offers can not be found elsewhere
The task of moving furniture from one place to another can not be done by anything, but it must rely on a specialized company such as شركة نقل اثاث بينبع ، As it will provide you with assurance that the furniture transfer works will be done well and will not be exposed any piece of the pieces to any problems during the transfer of furniture. In addition, it will carry out a comprehensive inspection of all parts before and before the transfer. The best packaging tools are used in this task. you only have to communicate with شركة نقل عفش بينبع .
Visit our website
https://www.zeenclean.com/
خدمات تنظيف

kayan web said...


considered as شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة The company has a fleet of vehicles equipped to transport the baggage to any area inside or outside Saudi Arabia, at the lowest possible cost, without any losses at all, where the employment When you contact us, our representative will contact you wherever you are, to inspect your existing furniture, determine the appropriate transportation method and the number of workers required to do so, agree on the appropriate time for the customer to transport, and determine the method of payment. Pric you, all you have is the contact numbers شركة نقل اثاث بالمدينة المنورة We pray wherever you are
To visit the site
https://www.elkhalegelaraby.com/
خدمات نقل عفش واثاث

kayan web said...

Welcome to the official website of our company to clean apartments, houses, villas and shops in Saudi Arabia This is because we are the best home services company at the moment and by the testimony of our valued customers, the workers who work in the company have a very high experience in the field of cleaning in general, as well as we will give you cleanliness of the highest quality and the lowest prices with the testimony of customers, our goal is to satisfy our customers to the highest degree possible and thanks to God always First of all, thanks to the workers and technicians, we were able to satisfy all the customers who contracted with the company and contacted them, because we specialize in cleaning, sewerage and transport of luggage just contact us and you will notice that your house as if it is completely new from the intensity of cleanliness.
شركة الصفرات للتنظيف بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف الخزانات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لمكافحة الحشرات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لنقل الاثاث بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لكشف التسربات بالرياض
شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة
شركة تنظيف بينبع
https://www.cleanriyadh.com/

kayan web said...

شركة الصفرات للتنظيف بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف الخزانات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لمكافحة الحشرات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لنقل الاثاث بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لكشف التسربات بالرياض
https://www.beat-elkhibra.com/

kayan web said...

شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة
نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة
شركة نقل اثاث بالمدينة المنورة
https://www.vipfurnituremoving.com

kayan web said...

شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة
شركة نظافة بالمدينة المنورة
https://www.cleaningcompanyusa.com/

kayan web said...

House cleaning company in Hail represents the best and ideal solution for specialized and distinctive cleaning of all pieces of furniture and house rooms no matter the number of floors of the house and the number of rooms, where we work through a team trained on modern methods of cleaning using the latest steam cleaning machines that give outstanding results in cleaning sofas, boards, carpets and rugs It is also used to clean curtains and furnishings.Ceramic floors, chimneys and hoods are cleaned from hard fat stains and rust stains safely and completely.We also provide marble polishing services by providing the latest Italian marble polishing machines with the best types of detergents Its excellent cleaning and disinfecting houses cleaning company examples in Hail is the best choice and cheaper.
شركة تنظيف بحائل
شركة تنظيف فرش بحائل
شركة تنظيف مجالس بحائل
شركة تنظيف سجاد بحائل
شركة تنظيف منازل بحائل
شركة رش مبيدات بحائل
https://www.raya-hail.com

Celia Dave said...

I was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer in August 2010. A valuable friend told me about Dr. Itua Herbal Center in West Africa. She gave me her phone number and email address. I quickly contacted him to guarantee that his herbal medicines will heal my cancer and I will heal forever I said OK.I ask him what is the healing process, he asks me to pay the fees I did and within 7 working days he sent me the herbal medicine and then he asked me I told my friend Gomez about the herbal drug so that he gave me to go and drink it.So after drinking for two weeks, I was cured, I am so grateful and I promise that I will do it I recommend to anyone who has cancer and that that I am doing. Herbal medicine Dr. Itua makes me believe that there is hope for people with Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, cancer, scoliosis, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and breast cancer. kidney cancer. , Leukemia, lung cancer, skin cancer, uterine cancer, prostate cancer Fibromyalgia, a
Fibrodysplasia Syndrome, Epilepsy,Sclerosis sickness, Dupuytren's Disease, Diabetes, Celiac Disease, Angiopathy, Ataxia, Arthritis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer's Disease, Lupus, Adrenocortic Carcinoma.Asthma, Allergic Diseases.HIV Help, HIV Aids, Herpes, Disease Chronic inflammatory, Memory disorder,
Here is his contact information ...... [Email ... drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com. Whatsapp ... + 2348149277967]

Celia Dave said...

I was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer in August 2010. A valuable friend told me about Dr. Itua Herbal Center in West Africa. She gave me her phone number and email address. I quickly contacted him to guarantee that his herbal medicines will heal my cancer and I will heal forever I said OK.I ask him what is the healing process, he asks me to pay the fees I did and within 7 working days he sent me the herbal medicine and then he asked me I told my friend Gomez about the herbal drug so that he gave me to go and drink it.So after drinking for two weeks, I was cured, I am so grateful and I promise that I will do it I recommend to anyone who has cancer and that that I am doing. Herbal medicine Dr. Itua makes me believe that there is hope for people with Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, cancer, scoliosis, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and breast cancer. kidney cancer. , Leukemia, lung cancer, skin cancer, uterine cancer, prostate cancer Fibromyalgia, a
Fibrodysplasia Syndrome, Epilepsy,Sclerosis sickness, Dupuytren's Disease, Diabetes, Celiac Disease, Angiopathy, Ataxia, Arthritis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer's Disease, Lupus, Adrenocortic Carcinoma.Asthma, Allergic Diseases.HIV Help, HIV Aids, Herpes, Disease Chronic inflammatory, Memory disorder,
Here is his contact information ...... [Email ... drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com. Whatsapp ... + 2348149277967]

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